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breakdown_regular_gasoline-largeThe single biggest factor in the price of gasoline is the cost of the crude oil from which it is made. In recent years, the world's appetite for gasoline and diesel fuel grew so quickly that suppliers of these fuels had a difficult time keeping up with demand. This demand growth is a key reason why prices of both crude oil and gasoline reached record levels in mid-2008. By the fall of 2008, crude oil prices began to fall due to the weakening economy and collapse of global petroleum demand. These factors helped gasoline prices to drop below $2 per gallon of Regular gasoline in late 2008 and early 2009. The gradual improvement in the U.S. and world economies in 2010 and the political events in the Middle East and North Africa in early 2011, the source of about one third of world oil production, contributed to the increases in crude oil and gasoline prices in 2010 and 2011.

There are three main grades of gasoline, based on octane levels: regular, midgrade, and premium. The octane level of a fuel refers to its resistance to combustion; a fuel with a higher octane level will be less prone to pre-ignition and detonation, which is also known as engine knocking. Premium grade is the most expensive; the price difference between grades is typically about 10¢ per gallon.

 

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imports_domestic_petro_shares_demand-smallThe United States consumed 19.1 million barrels per day (MMbd) of petroleum products during 2010, making us the world's largest petroleum consumer. The United States was third in crude oil production at 5.5 MMbd. But crude oil alone does not constitute all U.S. petroleum supplies. Significant gains occur, because crude oil expands in the refining process, liquid fuel is captured in the processing of natural gas, and we have other sources of liquid fuel, including biofuels. These additional supplies totaled 4.2 MMbd in 2010.

 

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RefiningCap_p2Atmospheric crude oil distillation capacity at U.S. refineries was 17.7 million barrels per day at the beginning of 2011 according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's Refinery Capacity Report. Capacity, which was 0.15 million barrels per day above its level at the start of 2010, reached the highest level recorded since 1982. Since 2001, total net U.S. refinery capacity grew by more than 1 million barrels per day.

 

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LIquid_Consumption_by_SectorU.S. consumption of liquid fuels (including fuels from petroleum-based sources and non-petroleum primary fuels such as biomass and natural gas) are projected to total 21.9 million barrels per day in 2035 according to the AEO2011 Reference case. An increase of 2.9 million barrels per day over the 2009 total (Figure 93). The transportation sector consumption grows by about 2.5 million barrels per day, cialis sale capsule although all other remaining sectors liquid fuel consumption remains at about the same level from 2009 to 2035. The transportation sector accounts for 73 percent of total liquid fuels consumption in 2035, up slightly from 71 percent in 2009.

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energy_consumption_by_sector-largeThe United States is a highly developed and industrialized society. We use a lot of energy in our homes, generic in businesses, seek in industry, and for personal travel and transporting goods.

Each Sector Plays an Important Role in Our Economy

The industrial sector includes facilities and equipment used for manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and construction.

The transportation sector comprises vehicles that transport people or goods, such as: cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, trains, subways, aircraft, boats, barges, and even hot air balloons.

The residential sector consists of homes and apartments.

The commercial sector includes buildings such as offices, malls, stores, schools, hospitals, hotels, warehouses, restaurants, places of worship, and more.

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LED_April_NewsletterLast month I went over how to calculate electrical usage using a basic formula. If you missed the article click HERE to go to last month's article covering the basic calculations.

Now that we all know how to calculate how much it cost to run a piece of equipment, let's move on to the topic of lighting. You all have seen, and probably use, CFL's (Compact Fluorescent Light-bulbs) in your home. But you might not have seen, and probably don't use, the newest technology which are LED's (Light Emitting Diodes).

If you were to replace a traditional 60 watt light bulb with a CFL, it would operate between 13-20 watts. But if you were to replace it with an LED, it would operate between 5-7 watts. There is a huge difference between the three. Even without doing a great deal of math you can see that the cost difference to operate is astronomical, it's almost unfair.

But before you run down to the local hardware store and buy all the LED's, let's breakdown the diffences between the three bulbs.

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